When epidermal growth factor (EGF)—the ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)—binds EGFR on the cell surface, the intracellular

When epidermal growth factor (EGF)—the ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)—binds EGFR on the cell surface, the intracellular domain of the receptor changes shape into an “active state.” The receptor then induces a cascade of kinases in the cytoplasm, resulting in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). One effect of EGFR signaling is the stimulation of cell proliferation. Overactive EGFR is frequently found in cancer cells.

One strategy for developing anticancer drugs is to target the overactive signaling proteins found in cancer cells. Antibodies are proteins made by immune cells that only recognize specific biomolecules, called antigens. The major component of an anticancer drug is an antibody that specifically recognizes and binds EGFR.
Which of the following will most likely happen when this anticancer drug is applied to a tumor that has a high level of EGFR?
A. Tumor cells with active EGFR will increase and MAPK activity in the tumor will increase.
B. Tumor cells with active EGFR will decrease and MAPK activity in the tumor will increase.
C. Tumor cells with active EGFR will increase and MAPK activity in the tumor will decrease.
D. Tumor cells with active EGFR will decrease and MAPK activity in the tumor will decrease.

“The headdresses worn by Mayan kings, lords, and warriors were among the most elaborate status symbols ever devised. Concocted of

“The headdresses worn by Mayan kings, lords, and warriors were among the most elaborate status symbols ever devised. Concocted of exotic items [taken] from around the region—including parrot and macaw feathers, jaguar pelts, seashells, and jade—they told of men who received reverent tribute from those who depended on their [ability]. Indeed, the headdresses of commanding figures often bore the features of a god, from whose gaping mouth the mortal’s face would emerge. Such crowns reflected the Mayan conviction that on ceremonial occasions their leaders became one with the gods.”

—Empires Besieged, Time Frame A.D. 200–600
Mayans believed that on certain ceremonial occasions
a.
their leaders were killed by the gods.
b.
their leaders danced with the gods.
c.
their leaders became one with the gods.
d.
their leaders’ heads were deformed.
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