“The technology of Arab shipbuilding in the Indian Ocean in that era before the Portuguese arrived was a curious combination

“The technology of Arab shipbuilding in the Indian Ocean in that era before the Portuguese arrived was a curious combination of strengths and weaknesses. The lateen sail, which the Arabs brought to the Mediterranean, by its adeptness at sailing into the wind had made the Portuguese ventures possible. The Arabs also pioneered in developing the stern rudder, which made any ship more maneuverable. They were skilled in using the stars for navigation. ‘He it is,’ said the Koran [Qu’ran], ‘who hath appointed for you the stars that ye guide yourselves thereby in the darkness of land and sea; we have made the signs distinct for a people who have knowledge.'”

According to the passage above, which Arab invention made any ship more maneuverable?
navigation
lateen sail
ship building
stern rudder


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